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Stanislav Konstantinov
The Energy of Black Holes in the service of Man

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Abstract: The review of the article Luca Comisso and Felipe A. Asenjo, Magnetic reconnection as a mechanism for energy extraction from rotating black holes indicates that the authors, proposing to extract the energy of a rotating black hole do not provide a technical substantiated solution to the problem. They are completely of completely abstract from the conditions birth of a black hole, the reasons for its rotation, the environment of the quantum polarized black matter and baryonic particles, as well as the nature of the explosive switching of magnetic field lines in quantum vacuum. The review gives a real picture of the physical conditions in the vicinity of a black hole, experimentally recreated in the laboratory and underlines the utopian nature of the proposals of the authors of the article.

Key words: dark matter, baryonic matter, black hole, quasar, magnetic reconnection

PACS numbers: 52.27.Ny; 52.30.Cv; 95.30.Qd, 04.20.-q


1. Introduction

The review for the article Luca Comisso and Felipe A. Asenjo, Magnetic reconnection as a mechanism for energy extraction from rotating black holes, Phys. Rev. D 103, 023014 Published 13 January 2021 (arXiv: 2012.00879v1 [astro-ph.HE], 1 Dec. 2020) [1]. The authors of the article write: Spinning black holes store rotational energy that can be extracted. When a black hole is immersed in an externally supplied magnetic field, reconnection of magnetic field lines within the ergosphere can generate negative energy (relative to infinity) particles that fall into the black hole event horizon while the other accelerated particles escape stealing energy from the black hole. We show analytically that energy extraction via magnetic reconnection is possible. [1].


2. The real physical picture in the vicinity of a black hole

Now let's look at the real physical picture in the vicinity of a black hole. The black hole is immersed in an external magnetic field created by polarized dark matter in the vicinity of the black hole. The main property of the formation of accretion disks will be strong magnetic radiation. Its magnetic field and induction can reach several thousand Tesla, note in their work researchers from the LaPlaz Institute, NRNU MEPhI and the CELIA laboratory of the University of Bordeaux [2]. The uniqueness of the experiment is that the parameters of the obtained plasma do not need to be scaled, they correspond to the actual parameters of the plasma in Neighborhoods of a black hole of close binary systems of the Cygnus X-1 type. Matter with a temperature of billions of degrees, a density of 10?⁸ particles per cm? and a frozen-in magnetic field of more than 2,000 Tesla was formed in the volume of the target for several picoseconds. It is these parameters that can be found in plasma in the active region of X-ray sources. The volume of incandescent magnetized matter was sufficient to possess the main characteristics of its cosmic prototype. This was also facilitated by the experimental conditions, in particular, the fact that inside the plasma volume the magnetic fields were directed towards each other in such a way that in the area of ​​contact of the opposing magnetic lines, the annihilation of the magnetic field took place, leading to the appearance of fluxes of electrons and positrons with speeds close to the speed of light [2]. This process resembles the birth of relativistic electron-positron pairs found in near-Earth space during reconnection - an explosive contact between two magnetic field lines in thin layers of the Earth's magnetosphere, studied in detail by the MMS mission [3].

The energy of the magnetic field of polarized dark matter in the halo forming a sphere [4] is spent on the creation of the rotation of the black hole core [5] and accretion disks and the generation of electron-positron pairs of particles during the explosive reconnection of magnetic field lines. Contributed by Eric Cotner, Alexander Kusenko, Misao Sasaki, "Analytic Description of Primordial Black Hole Formation from Scalar Field Fragmentation" [6], given the existence of the Higgs field and the predominance of scalar fields in supersymmetric and other models of new physics, PBHs are considered to be an attractive and plausible candidate for the role of dark matter - the protophobic X boson. These forces are involved in the fifth fundamental interaction between the quantum vacuum and baryonic matter. Dr. Jonathan Feng of the University of California, Irvine said in a 2017 press release: For decades, we have known about four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, and strong and weak nuclear forces. The discovery of a possible fifth force acting between baryonic and dark matter will completely change our understanding of the Universe, which will entail the unification of the fifth force and dark matter. The protophobic X boson of dark matter makes it possible to explain a number of experiments in which the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is observed and is associated with the fifth interaction [7]. The axial rotation of the black hole core will be due to the formation of a magnetic field of monstrous values ​​of 2,000 Tesla when polarized quantum vacuum (dark matter) under the influence of gravitational fields. Taking into account all the properties of the magnetic field in the new electrodynamics makes it possible to detect, in addition to the well-known transverse Lorentz forces, also the longitudinal forces of the magnetic field, providing rotation of the core of black holes, stars and planets [5]. An analysis of functioning for devices of type of Professor Marinov's (SIBIRIAN COLIA of Tomsk physicist Gennady Nikolaev) railgun engine or shows that the driving forces in them are are no potential transverse Lorentz forces applied to radial rotation currents of an anchor, but longitudinal reaction forces applied to currents in rails. If we extend the railgun experiment to a global scale and if as an engine we consider the planet Earth, on a surface of which a negative electric charge Q =5,16∙10?⁴ coulomb is concentrated, while along an outer sphere currents, which generate a magnetic field of 50 a/m, then Axial rotation of the Earth would depend on the same longitudinal forces , as in the railgun experiment. Likewise, giant magnetic fields created around stars and black holes cause them to rotate contrary to classical electrodynamics [5].


At the boundary of a black hole, the quantum vacuum is in a conditionally stressed state, as a result of which it is polarized in a quantum way [8]. Nothing of the kind follows from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity [9]. Einstein's general relativity, in general, is incompatible with quantum concepts. And quantum theory, in turn, cannot operate with dimensionless material points that are manipulated by general relativity. Studying the behavior of quantum fields near a black hole, Stephen Hawking predicted that a black hole necessarily radiates particles into outer space and thereby loses mass. This effect is called Hawking radiation (evaporation) [10]. To put it simply, gravitational and magnetic fields polarize the vacuum (dark matter), as a result of which the formation of not only virtual, but also real particle-antiparticle pairs is possible. According to Hawking, on the surface of the event horizon, the direction of expansion of the generated particles ceases to be random, i.e. becomes polarized, namely, orthogonal to the BH surface. The existence of stable Hawking radiation - the process of emission of various particles by a black hole - was first proved by specialists from the Israel Institute of Technology [11]. The authors of the article suggest show analytically energy extraction via magnetic reconnection is possible with the help of accelerated plasma, which flies off to infinity and takes away the energy of the black hole [1]. The substance erupts from a black hole at a speed significantly higher than the speed of light. Although the erupted substance takes the form of an elongated ray, it does not look like a uniform stream - it is rather lumpy, inhomogeneous clumps of hot material flying. The results of the latest study are presented in a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal (Figure 1) [12].


Figure 1. The flow of matter discharged from a black hole NGC 4486 at a speed 6.3 times the speed of light

How the authors of the article are going to curb this stream, each particle of which has the mass of a star, it is difficult to imagine.


3. Conclusion

In general, the article does not look well thought out and requires clarification:

1) The explosive reconnection of the magnetic field lines does not occur inside the ergosphere, but inside the dark matter halo rotating with the black hole core [4];

2) In this case, in the quantum medium of dark matter, it is by polarized and high-energy electron-positron particles are generates [8];

3) The electron-positron mixture, consisting of approximately equal numbers of negative electrons and positive positrons in the accretion disk, does not annihilate due to the fact that they rotate in the plasma disk at approximately the speed of light. And it is precisely this speed, or rather the force of inertia, that keeps them from direct collisions and complete annihilation;

4) The mechanism of energy extraction from baryonic matter in the form of lumps the size of a star when it is ejected outside the black hole is not presented in the article.


REFERENCES

  1. Luca Comisso and Felipe A. Asenjo, "Magnetic reconnection as a mechanism for energy extraction from rotating black holes", Phys. Rev. D 103, 023014 Published 13 January 2021
  2. K. F. F. Law, Y. Abe, A. Morace, Y. Arikawa, S. Sakata, S. Lee, K. Matsuo, H. Morita, Y. Ochiai, C. Liu, A. Yogo, K. Okamoto, D. Golovin, M. Ehret, T. Ozaki, M. Nakai, Y. Sentoku, J. J. Santos, E. d'Humi?res, Ph. Korneev, and S. Fujioka Relativistic magnetic reconnection in laser laboratory for testing an emission mechanism of hard-state black hole system, Phys. Rev. E 102, 033202 Published 3 September 2020
  3. R. B. Torbert, et al. Electron-scale dynamics of the diffusion region during symmetric magnetic reconnection in space, Science 15 Nov 2018: eaat2998, DOI: 10.1126/science.aat2998
  4. Konstantinov S.I., Halo of dark matter and gravitational waves, Global Journals Inc. (USA) GJSFR-A, Volume 20, Issue 4, Version 1.0, pp 5-11, (2020)
  5. Stanislav I. Konstantinov, "Review of some projects connected with of fundamental laws of physics", Journal of Computer and Electronic Sciences, (JCES), Vol. 1(2), pp. 32-41, 28 February, 2015
  6. Eric Cotner, Alexander Kusenko,Misao Sasaki, "Analytic Description of Primordial Black Hole Formation from Scalar Field Fragmentation" arXiv: 1907.10613v2 [astro-ph.CO], 31 Oct. 2019
  7. Feng Jonathan L., Protophobic Fifth Force Interpretation of the Observed Anomaly in ⁸Be Nuclear Transitions, arXiv: 1604.07411v2 [hep-ph], (15 Aug. 2016)
  8. Konstantinov Stanislav, Polarization of Vacuum, Open Access Journal of Physics, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp. 15-24, (2018)
  9. S.I. Konstantinov, Roger Penrose and Black Holes, International Journal of Advanced Research in Physical Science (IJARPS), Volume 8, Issue 1, (2021)
  10. Stephen Hawking. From the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York: Bantam Books, 1988.
  11. Ingrid Fadelli , Researchers observe stationary Hawking radiation in an analog black hole, Phys.org , FEBRUARY 19, 2021
  12. Bradford Snios, Paul EJ Noulsen, Ralph P. Kraft, KS Chung, Eileen T. Meyer, William R. Foreman, Christine Jones, Stephen S. Murray. Detection of superluminal motion in an X-ray jet M87, arXiv: 1905.04330 [astro-ph.HE] (2019) DOI: 10.3847 / 1538-4357 / ab2119

Stanislav Konstantinov, The Energy of Black Holes in the service of Man // « », ., 77-6567, .27043, 20.03.2021

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