The riddle of hemispheric perception mechanism connected with hemispheric inverse perception of spatial characteristics of the environment is considered with the help of interdisciplinary research (the concept of asymmetry of human brain's hemispheres, and also the philosophical concepts of reality and physical theories of Universe's structure). It is shown that the inverse scheme of hemispheric perception corresponds to subject-subject model of human interaction with the world, which presupposes the unity of the subjective and objective, the internal and external, "I" and non-"I", man and the world. The assumption is made that self-consciousness is generated at the neutral point of interaction of "I" and non-"I", which in physical sense corresponds to the physical vacuum (as a neutral medium integrating the opposites), and also to fundamental quantum level of the Universe, revealing the unity of the internal and external, the simple and complex, cause and effect as expressions of implicative nature of the "field of consciousness" and the anthropic postulate.
Key words: cerebral hemispheres, inverse character of hemispheric perception, self-consciousness, gestalt psychology, physical vacuum, field of consciousness, anthropic postulate, mirror neurons, the principle coordination theory.
Загадка полушарного восприятия мира, возможно, решена, благодаря чему прояснена проблема генерации и локализации самосознания
На основе междисциплинарного исследования (концепции асимметрии полушарий головного мозга человека, философских концепций реальности и физических теорий строения Вселенной) рассматривается загадка механизма полушарной перцепции, связанная с инверсионным восприятием полушариями пространственных характеристик среды. Показывается, что инверсионная схема полушарной перцепции соответствует субъект-субъектной модели взаимодействия человека с миром, которая предполагает единство субъективного и объективного, внутреннего и внешнего, "Я" и не-"Я", человека и мира. Сделано предположение о том, что самосознание генерируется в нейтральной точке взаимодействия "Я" и не-"Я", которая в физическом смысле соответствует физическому вакууму (как нейтральной среде, интегрирующей противоположности), а также фундаментальному квантовому уровню Вселенной, на котором обнаруживается единство внутреннего и внешнего, простого и сложного, причины и следствия как выражения импликативной природы "поля сознания" и антропного постулата.
Ключевые слова: полушария головного мозга, инверсионный характер полушарной перцепции, самосознание, гештальтпсихология, физический вакуум, поле сознания, антропный постулат, зеркальные нейроны, теория принципиальной координации.
The urgency of the problem. Every science has always sought to find some fundamental ground helping the crystallization of deep scientific meanings. Psychology and related scientific disciplines for such fundamental ground have the concept of functional asymmetry of human brain hemispheres due to the universal nature of their specializations revealing a correlation with spatio-temporal asymmetry of the Universe.
The hemispheres reflect and master the world in a unified ways being opposite to each other: the functions of the right hemisphere reveals continuous-field aspect of the Universe, connecting with shaping an ambiguous polysemantic, artistic context of world view, with constructing sacral-religious, metaphoric reality of social world [Amunts, 2010; Bullmore, 1995; Flor-Henry, 1978; Rogers, 2000; Simonov, 1991; Sperry, 1968; Springer, Deutsch, 1997]; on the contrary, the functions of the left hemisphere reveals discrete-substance, plural aspect of the Universe, connecting with shaping one-semantic, unambiguous, abstract, discursive-theoretical world understanding, with building rational-technocratic reality.
The encephalographic studies shows that functional synchronization of the hemispheric information processing strategies takes place in a meditation state [Murphy, Dobovan, 1985, p. 34-40], thus enabling a man to actualize the state of illumination due to which it is possible for a man to realize intuitive perception of the world in all its wholeness and integrity.
As numerous scientific experiments show that the brain's hemispheres can be considered a psychological and physiological centre of human organism, since with their functions a lot of aspects our organism are correlated, specifically, I and non-I, the mechanisms of aim creation and searching the ways of achieving the aims [Simonov, 1991], energy and information regulation of man's behavior, strength and weakness of nervous processes, their lability and inertness, excitation and inhibition, ergotrophic and trophotrophic functions, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of vegetative nervous system, such sensory processes as empathy and reflection, extroversion and introversion, automatic and spontaneous psychic activities revealing first and second signaling systems, volitional and non-volitional psychic spheres [Flor-Henry, 1978].
In a somewhat simplified way, as the hemispheres can function in supplementing way, the difference of hemispheres function can be shown in such opposite ways:
– analytical thinking, literal understanding of the words, sequential processing of information, mathematical capabilities, right part of the body and right vision field are the domains the left hemispheric functions;
– perception of non-verbal information, spatial orientation, understanding the metaphors, emotional processes, multitasking and parallel processing of information, left part of the body and left vision field are the prerogative of the right hemispheric functions.
The purpose of the article. So, the purpose of the article is to clear up the phenomenon of inverse perception of spatial characteristics of the environment by the hemispheres.
The scientific results and their discussion. It is very important to note that person's development in onto- and phylogenesis reveals the phenomenon of step by step increasing the hemispheric asymmetry into a mature age. Then this process begins to turn back when in man's elderly age the condition for functional synthesis of the hemispheres is revealed: enriched in life experience an elderly person begins to transform into a spontaneous and frank child with its plastic psyche.
The hemispheres of the human brain, taken separately, reflect the world inadequately. V.L. Deglin, studying the hemispheric peculiarities of reflecting the surrounding world and, in particular, the hemispheric capacities for spatial perception, came to the conclusion about the aninitropic character of hemispheric perception, when both hemispheres reflect the surrounding space in an erroneous way, but these errors have the opposite character, when the left hemisphere remotes the visual space, and the right – approximates the visual space to the observer. That is, as V.L. Deglin writes in his lectures on hemispheric asymmetry, the left hemisphere seeks to visually distance a person from the elements of the environment, and the right – to integrate a person into it.
This phenomenon of visual distortion of reality manifests itself at all levels of person's mental organization, since all aspects of a person are connected with the functions of the hemispheres, in particular, mental processes are dependent on the right hemisphere of the brain, include sensory asymmetries, deductive thinking processes, and the left hemispheric functions closely correlate with motor asymmetries and inductive thinking processes. It is worth mentioning that mentally retarded children lack the phenomenon of reality distortion, at least at the level of a visual analyzer: they have a concentric narrowing of both fields of vision and almost full equality of monocular fields of vision.
The functional coherence of the hemispheres (in the sphere of the "super-I", according to P. V. Simonov), the "compromise" between them leads, as V. L. Deglin writes, to the equalization of spatial deformation, that is, the adequacy the perception of volumetric space characteristics on the retina plane of the eyes is achieved, when the volumetric and plane aspects, being geometric antagonists (as demonstrated by the dichotomy of the geometries of Euclid and N.I. Lobachevsky) are harmonized and reduced to a common sensory "denominator".
In this connection, we can also mention the physical uncertainty relation of V.Heisenberg, according to which the product of the uncertainties of the coordinate of an elementary particle and its momentum can not be less than a certain constant (Planck's constant). Note, that this relationship, as shown by L.Mandel, covers space and time in general, when there is no physical system in its space and time, which at the same time have quite definite, exact values. In any physical system, when there is exact spatial characteristics, so its time characteristics are indeterminate and vice versa.
So, man's perception of space and time reveals a certain localization in the brain, when the functional asymmetry of the hemispheres expresses, as we have already written, the spatio-temporal asymmetry of the Universe.
The mastery of the future time by the hemispheres is connected with the functioning of the anterior parts of the brain, especially of the left hemisphere, and the perception of the past time – of the rear parts of the brain, especially of the right hemisphere. In this case, the frontal parts of the hemispheres are related to programming persons behavior (the "analytical forecast of the future") and the motor activity, and their lesion causes a tendency to reduce person's initiative, reaching a degree of spontaneity with no incentive for activity, as observed in case of lesion of the left frontal lobe; for reception, processing and storage of information received through the sensory channels, the back parts of the hemispheres, especially the right hemisphere (A.R. Luria, N.N. Bragina, T.A. Dobrokhotova) are most responsible.