The main purpose of developing the universal matrixes of knowledge as interdisciplinary instruments of scientific research and students' teaching means is given to overcome the information boom revealing the argent necessity to substantiate some universal knowledge basis for all sciences. This basis is built on the universal matrixes of knowledge being the realization of the phenomenon of wholeness of the Universe embodying in the fundamentality of educational content and pedagogical integration. The major four matrixes of knowledge are connected with some pedagogical, scientific and philosophical problems.
1. The problem of genesis/creation of the world: the corresponding matrix of knowledge № 1 shows the universal way of world's genesis.
2. The problem of general system theory concerning the task of reality modeling: the corresponding matrix of knowledge № 2 realizes the universal system principle of world organization.
3. The problem of the development of the world and all its phenomena is solved with the universal paradigm of development being the corresponding matrix of knowledge № 3.
4. The problem of man as a complex entity uniting the physical and spiritual aspects of the Universe is realized in the sphere of a colossal research instrument – the concept of functional asymmetry of the hemispheres of man's cerebrum being the corresponding matrix of knowledge № 4.
Key words: information boom; universal matrixes of knowledge; interdisciplinary instruments of scientific research; genesis/creation of the world; general system theory; the universal paradigm of development; the concept of functional asymmetry of the hemispheres of human brain, fundamentality of educational content, pedagogical integration.
Основные универсальные матрицы знаний как междисциплинарный инструмент научного исследования и средство обучения студентов
Основная цель разработки универсальных матриц знаний как междисциплинарных инструментов научных исследований и средства обучения студентов заключается в преодолении информационного бума, обнаруживающего необходимость обоснования некоторого универсального базиса для всех наук. Предлагаются основные аспекты этого базиса, построенного на универсальных матрицах знаний, являющихся реализацией феномена целостности Вселенной и воплощением педагогической интеграции и фундаментализации знаний. Четыре основные матрицы знаний связаны с важными педагогическими и научно-философскими проблемами.
1. Проблема генезиса / создания мира: соответствующая матрица знаний № 1 отражает универсальную схему генезиса мира.
2. Проблема общей теории систем, связанная с заданием системного моделирования реальности: соответствующая матрица знаний № 2 реализует универсальный системный принцип организации Вселенной и ее аспектов.
3. Проблема развития мира и всех его предметов и явлений решается с помощью универсальной парадигмы развития, являющейся соответствующей матрицей знаний № 3.
4. Проблема человека как сложной сущности, объединяющей физические и духовные аспекты Вселенной, реализуется в сфере колоссального исследовательского инструмента – концепции функциональной асимметрии полушарий человеческого головного мозга, которая воплощается в соответствующей матрице знаний № 4.
Ключевые слова: информационный бум; универсальные матрицы знаний; междисциплинарные инструменты научных исследований; генезис / создание мира; общая теория систем; универсальная парадигма развития; концепция функциональной асимметрии полушарий человеческого мозга, фундаментализация содержания образования, педагогическая интеграция.
The urgency of the problem. The amount of information on our planet doubles each 10–15 years. The deepening of the process of sciences specialization has brought about the situation when the volume of publications in some sciences is practically boundless. In the process of any research the scientist often spends a lion's share of time for studying the newest literature on the specialty.
Thus the information boom earlier or later will force our civilization to give up the classical tradition to cite all the predecessors; cognition and the history of cognition will have to be separated. That is why complex studies, directed at the synthesis of scientific views and facts within certain set of problems, are of particular interest.
It is quite understandable why modern science as a form of social consciousness is tending to holistic reflection of reality, why scrupulous investigations of separate problems are being gradually replaced by the attempts to bind into a single wholeness an enormous array of uncoordinated branches of knowledge, thus not only describing, but explaining a vast ensemble of facts, accumulated by the mankind.
Analysis of recent research and publications. So, the aspiration of modern scientific world to the synthesis of knowledge due to the interdisciplinary research presupposes the development of complex studies focusing on fundamental problems of the world (F.Capra, A.P. Dubrov, A.Maslow, G.I Naan, V. N. Pushkin, Yu. A Urmantsev, etc).
Moreover, the achieving of understanding a certain phenomenon requires its holistic envelopment, when the fathoming of a certain scientifically important fact needs going out of the limits of concrete ontological and gnoseological context of its actualization. And this can be done on the ways of complex integrated investigation of the Universe.
Thus any phenomenon of our world can be studied within the framework of concrete problems of this or that scientific discipline, but the maximum full and adequate reflection of a certain fragment of reality presupposes its all-embracing study thus enabling a scientist to rise over the horizon of specialized scientific branches. So, only interdisciplinary researcher, who is eager to interpret a certain problem in the fullness of its ontological, praxiological, gnoseological and axiological constituents has every chance to achieve the understanding of the fragmented scientific data.
If understanding is a phenomenon of wholeness, since any understanding is directed, first of all, at reaching the conceptual unity and congruity of facts within the framework of certain thinking methodological tradition (paradigm), then interdisciplinary research can be called the most preferable instrument enabling to reach the fullest degree of comprehension of a certain phenomenon.
It should be noted that if the understanding of a certain subject presupposes its total outlining, then the realization of man's understanding being the holistic entity requires an application of mythological views besides scientific theories, since myth, as it is well known, deals with the simplest holistic metaphoric categories.
That is why the process of understanding the world and its aspects cannot be one-sidedly expressed only by the language of physics, mathematics, or science in general, since such a way moves us away from the holistic embracing of the subject, in the process of which all forms of world's cognition (religion, science, philosophy) are to be realized in their integrity thus revealing a new and simultaneously well forgotten cognition aim – the wholeness.
On the level of educational systems the wholeness is embodied in such important aspects of education as fundamentality of educational content, pedagogical integration and universality of knowledge. Information boom requires the corresponding orientation of education, specifically the system of professional training, at fundamentalization and universality of knowledge, their interdisciplinary nature, the formation in the prospective specialists the ability to use this knowledge in the condition of rapid changes in the fields of modern production and educational technologies.
The pedagogical integration in the context of the educational process involves the comprehensive application of both philosophical and general scientific, and specialized knowledge – their synthesis – when the transfer of ideas and methods from one science and theoretical plane to the other is the basis of a creative approach to man's scientific, engineering, artistic activities in contemporary conditions of scientific and technological progress and civilization changes.
The essence of the principle of fundamentality and universality of knowledge can be expressed in a number of provisions:
1. Fundamental interdisciplinary knowledge is not limited to the fundamentals of scientific knowledge.
2. Fundamentality of scientific knowledge is not limited to scientific and rational knowledge, it also involves scientific intuition.
3. Fundamentality of knowledge is based on the scientific and philosophical reflection of the teacher, although this knowledge is adapted by the "conceptual system" of the student.
4. Fundamental interdisciplinary knowledge includes both knowledge on man's reflection and meta-knowledge, thus realizing the unification of knowledge.
5. Fundamentality of knowledge means its versatility and focusing on the perception and understanding of the world ascertain wholeness.
6. Holistic knowledge system is the most important criterion for its fundamentality, so fundamentality of knowledge reveals its integrity, non-classical and problem character.
7. Formation of fundamental knowledge being one of the most important processes of fundamentality of education and pedagogical integrating presupposes its systematization, taxonomy, qualification, methodology, cybernetization, problemization, mathematization, cyclization in the organization of knowledge
The purpose of the article. On the level of the wholeness the system of knowledge is realized in the sphere of the universal matrixes of knowledge. The outlining of some of its major knowledge matrixes is the purpose of the article.
The scientific results and their discussion. We live in a holistic world where everything is interconnected and stands in universal bonds with everything (the dialectical law of universal ties of all phenomena of our world) due to the cause-effect relations (total determinism when, according to synergetic methodology, even chaos can be understood as order constituting phenomenon). This truth is realized in such theoretical and practical entities.
1. The concept of fractal-holographic building of the Universe.
2. The paradoxical phenomenon of quantum physics: on the fundamental photon level of the Universe (the level of minimum portion of energy of the world) it is a holistic entity where such oppositions as the part and the whole, inner and outer, the simple and the complex, past and future, cause and effect… are not differentiated.
3. The anthropic cosmological principle according to which the physical laws regulating the existence of our Universe are in very subtle reciprocal coordination, thus creating the conditions for man's existence.